68.7.252.213: /* Climate */

Climate


← Previous revision Revision as of 20:07, 22 April 2022
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San Diego has one of the top-ten best climates in the United States, according to the ”[[Farmers’ Almanac]]”<ref>{{cite news|author=Geiger, Peter|title=The 10 Best Weather Cities|url=http://www.farmersalmanac.com/blog/2006/10/05/the-10-best-weather-cities/|date=October 5, 2006|publisher=Almanac Publishing|work=Farmer’s Almanac|access-date=April 19, 2011|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110615005241/http://www.farmersalmanac.com/blog/2006/10/05/the-10-best-weather-cities/|archive-date=June 15, 2011|url-status=dead}}</ref> and has one of the two best summer climates in the country as scored by [[The Weather Channel]].<ref>{{cite news |last1=Kellogg |first1=Becky |last2=Erdman |first2=Jonathan |title=America’s Best Climates |url=http://wwworigin.weather.com/outlook/weather-news/news/articles/americas-best-climates-poll_2010-10-19?page=3 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110723130639/http://wwworigin.weather.com/outlook/weather-news/news/articles/americas-best-climates-poll_2010-10-19?page=3 |date=September 2010 |url-status=dead |archive-date=July 23, 2011 |publisher=The Weather Channel |access-date=October 10, 2020}}</ref> Under the [[Köppen–Geiger climate classification system]], the San Diego area has been variously categorized as having either a [[semi-arid climate]] (”[[hot semi-arid climate|BSh]]” in the original classification<ref>{{cite journal|author=M. Kottek|author2=J. Grieser, C. Beck, B. Rudolf, and F. Rubel|title=World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated|journal=Meteorol. Z.|volume=15|issue=3|pages=259–263|url=http://koeppen-geiger.vu-wien.ac.at/pics/kottek_et_al_2006.gif|doi=10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130|bibcode=2006MetZe..15..259K|access-date=July 9, 2013|year=2006}}</ref> and ”BSkn” in modified Köppen classification with the n denoting summer fog)<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.dfg.ca.gov/biogeodata/atlas/pdf/Clim_12b_web.pdf|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100331081841/http://www.dfg.ca.gov/biogeodata/atlas/pdf/Clim_12b_web.pdf|url-status=dead|archive-date=2010-03-31|title=Atlas of the Biodiversity of California|date=2010-03-31|access-date=2018-08-07}}</ref> or a [[Mediterranean climate]]<ref>Francisco Pugnaire and Fernando Valladares eds. [https://books.google.com/books?id=Fqc-_Zv3jIMC&pg=PA287&dq=%22san+diego%22+%22mediterranean%22+koppen&hl=en&sa=X&ei=eivCUamqFOWHywHLyYH4Cg&ved=0CEkQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=%22san%20diego%22%20%22mediterranean%22%20koppen&f=false Functional Plant Ecology]. 2d ed. 2007. p.287.</ref> (”Csa”).<ref>Michael Allaby, Martyn Bramwell, Jamie Stokes, eds. [https://books.google.com/books?id=iHPbFExmzoQC&pg=PA182&dq=%22san+diego%22+%22mediterranean%22+koppen&hl=en&sa=X&ei=ECjCUe-lM6-WyAHC4IAY&ved=0CDkQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=%22san%20diego%22%20%22mediterranean%22%20koppen&f=false Weather and Climate: An Illustrated Guide to Science]. 2006. p.182.</ref> San Diego’s climate is characterized by warm, dry summers and mild winters, with most of the annual precipitation falling between December and March. The city has a mild climate year-round,<ref>Michalski, Greg et al. [http://www.cee.mtu.edu/~reh/papers/pubs/non_Honrath/michalski03_GL017015.pdf First Measurements and Modeling of ∆<sup>17</sup>O in atmospheric nitrate] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130724021112/http://www.cee.mtu.edu/~reh/papers/pubs/non_Honrath/michalski03_GL017015.pdf |date=July 24, 2013 }}. Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 30, No. 16. p.3. 2003.</ref> with an average of 201 days above {{convert|70|°F|°C|abbr=on}} and low rainfall ({{convert|9|-|13|in|mm|disp=x| [|]}} annually).<!–<ref name = “NOAA”>{{cite web|url=http://www.wrh.noaa.gov/sgx/climate/san-san-month.htm |title=National Oceanic and Atmospheric Agency: San Diego climate by month |publisher=Wrh.noaa.gov |access-date=May 4, 2011}}</ref>–>
San Diego has one of the top-ten best climates in the United States, according to the ”[[Farmers’ Almanac]]”<ref>{{cite news|author=Geiger, Peter|title=The 10 Best Weather Cities|url=http://www.farmersalmanac.com/blog/2006/10/05/the-10-best-weather-cities/|date=October 5, 2006|publisher=Almanac Publishing|work=Farmer’s Almanac|access-date=April 19, 2011|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110615005241/http://www.farmersalmanac.com/blog/2006/10/05/the-10-best-weather-cities/|archive-date=June 15, 2011|url-status=dead}}</ref> and has one of the two best summer climates in the country as scored by [[The Weather Channel]].<ref>{{cite news |last1=Kellogg |first1=Becky |last2=Erdman |first2=Jonathan |title=America’s Best Climates |url=http://wwworigin.weather.com/outlook/weather-news/news/articles/americas-best-climates-poll_2010-10-19?page=3 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110723130639/http://wwworigin.weather.com/outlook/weather-news/news/articles/americas-best-climates-poll_2010-10-19?page=3 |date=September 2010 |url-status=dead |archive-date=July 23, 2011 |publisher=The Weather Channel |access-date=October 10, 2020}}</ref> Under the [[Köppen–Geiger climate classification system]], the San Diego area has been variously categorized as having either a [[semi-arid climate]] (”[[hot semi-arid climate|BSh]]” in the original classification<ref>{{cite journal|author=M. Kottek|author2=J. Grieser, C. Beck, B. Rudolf, and F. Rubel|title=World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated|journal=Meteorol. Z.|volume=15|issue=3|pages=259–263|url=http://koeppen-geiger.vu-wien.ac.at/pics/kottek_et_al_2006.gif|doi=10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130|bibcode=2006MetZe..15..259K|access-date=July 9, 2013|year=2006}}</ref> and ”BSkn” in modified Köppen classification with the n denoting summer fog)<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.dfg.ca.gov/biogeodata/atlas/pdf/Clim_12b_web.pdf|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100331081841/http://www.dfg.ca.gov/biogeodata/atlas/pdf/Clim_12b_web.pdf|url-status=dead|archive-date=2010-03-31|title=Atlas of the Biodiversity of California|date=2010-03-31|access-date=2018-08-07}}</ref> or a [[Mediterranean climate]]<ref>Francisco Pugnaire and Fernando Valladares eds. [https://books.google.com/books?id=Fqc-_Zv3jIMC&pg=PA287&dq=%22san+diego%22+%22mediterranean%22+koppen&hl=en&sa=X&ei=eivCUamqFOWHywHLyYH4Cg&ved=0CEkQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=%22san%20diego%22%20%22mediterranean%22%20koppen&f=false Functional Plant Ecology]. 2d ed. 2007. p.287.</ref> (”Csa”).<ref>Michael Allaby, Martyn Bramwell, Jamie Stokes, eds. [https://books.google.com/books?id=iHPbFExmzoQC&pg=PA182&dq=%22san+diego%22+%22mediterranean%22+koppen&hl=en&sa=X&ei=ECjCUe-lM6-WyAHC4IAY&ved=0CDkQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=%22san%20diego%22%20%22mediterranean%22%20koppen&f=false Weather and Climate: An Illustrated Guide to Science]. 2006. p.182.</ref> San Diego’s climate is characterized by warm, dry summers and mild winters, with most of the annual precipitation falling between December and March. The city has a mild climate year-round,<ref>Michalski, Greg et al. [http://www.cee.mtu.edu/~reh/papers/pubs/non_Honrath/michalski03_GL017015.pdf First Measurements and Modeling of ∆<sup>17</sup>O in atmospheric nitrate] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130724021112/http://www.cee.mtu.edu/~reh/papers/pubs/non_Honrath/michalski03_GL017015.pdf |date=July 24, 2013 }}. Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 30, No. 16. p.3. 2003.</ref> with an average of 201 days above {{convert|70|°F|°C|abbr=on}} and low rainfall ({{convert|9|-|13|in|mm|disp=x| [|]}} annually).<!–<ref name = “NOAA”>{{cite web|url=http://www.wrh.noaa.gov/sgx/climate/san-san-month.htm |title=National Oceanic and Atmospheric Agency: San Diego climate by month |publisher=Wrh.noaa.gov |access-date=May 4, 2011}}</ref>–>
The climate in San Diego, like most of Southern California, often varies significantly over short geographical distances, resulting in [[microclimate]]s. In San Diego, this is mostly because of the city’s topography (the Bay, and the numerous hills, mountains, and canyons). Frequently, particularly during the “May gray/[[June Gloom|June gloom]]” period, a thick “[[marine layer]]” cloud cover keeps the air cool and damp within a few miles of the coast, but yields to bright cloudless sunshine approximately {{convert|5|–|10|mi|km|0}} inland.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://meteora.ucsd.edu/cap/gloom.html |title=UCSD |publisher=Meteora.ucsd.edu |date=May 14, 2010 |access-date=July 1, 2010 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100613050427/http://meteora.ucsd.edu/cap/gloom.html |archive-date=June 13, 2010 |url-status=dead }}</ref> Sometimes the June gloom lasts into July, causing cloudy skies over most of San Diego for the entire day.<ref name=weather1>{{cite web|url=http://www.weather.com/outlook/travel/businesstraveler/wxclimatology/monthly/USca0982|title=Monthly Averages for San Diego, CA|access-date=April 22, 2009|publisher=[[The Weather Channel (United States)|The Weather Channel]]|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090502201247/http://www.weather.com/outlook/travel/businesstraveler/wxclimatology/monthly/USCA0982|archive-date=May 2, 2009|url-status=dead|df=mdy-all}}</ref><ref name=weather_el_cajon>{{cite web|url=http://www.weather.com/outlook/travel/businesstraveler/wxclimatology/monthly/92020|title=Monthly Averages for El Cajon, CA|access-date=April 22, 2009|publisher=[[The Weather Channel (United States)|The Weather Channel]]|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110604055354/http://www.weather.com/outlook/travel/businesstraveler/wxclimatology/monthly/92020|archive-date=June 4, 2011|url-status=dead|df=mdy-all}}</ref> Even in the absence of June gloom, inland areas experience much more significant temperature variations than coastal areas, where the ocean serves as a moderating influence. Thus, for example, downtown San Diego averages January lows of {{convert|50|F|C}} and August highs of {{convert|78|F|C}}. The city of [[El Cajon, California|El Cajon]], just {{convert|10|mi|km}} inland from downtown San Diego, averages January lows of {{convert|42|F|C}} and August highs of {{convert|88|F|C}}.
The climate in San Diego, like most of Southern California, often varies significantly over short geographical distances, resulting in [[microclimate]]s. In San Diego, this is mostly because of the city’s topography (the Bay, and the numerous hills, mountains, and canyons). Frequently, particularly during the “May gray/[[June Gloom|June gloom]]” period, a thick “[[marine layer]]” cloud cover keeps the air cool and damp within a few miles of the coast, but yields to bright cloudless sunshine approximately {{convert|5|–|10|mi|km|0}} inland.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://meteora.ucsd.edu/cap/gloom.html |title=UCSD |publisher=Meteora.ucsd.edu |date=May 14, 2010 |access-date=July 1, 2010 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100613050427/http://meteora.ucsd.edu/cap/gloom.html |archive-date=June 13, 2010 |url-status=dead }}</ref> Sometimes the June gloom lasts into July, causing cloudy skies over most of San Diego for the entire day.<ref name=weather1>{{cite web|url=http://www.weather.com/outlook/travel/businesstraveler/wxclimatology/monthly/USca0982|title=Monthly Averages for San Diego, CA|access-date=April 22, 2009|publisher=[[The Weather Channel (United States)|The Weather Channel]]|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090502201247/http://www.weather.com/outlook/travel/businesstraveler/wxclimatology/monthly/USCA0982|archive-date=May 2, 2009|url-status=dead|df=mdy-all}}</ref><ref name=weather_el_cajon>{{cite web|url=http://www.weather.com/outlook/travel/businesstraveler/wxclimatology/monthly/92020|title=Monthly Averages for El Cajon, CA|access-date=April 22, 2009|publisher=[[The Weather Channel (United States)|The Weather Channel]]|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110604055354/http://www.weather.com/outlook/travel/businesstraveler/wxclimatology/monthly/92020|archive-date=June 4, 2011|url-status=dead|df=mdy-all}}</ref> Even in the absence of June gloom, inland areas experience much more significant temperature variations than coastal areas, where the ocean serves as a moderating influence. Thus, for example, downtown San Diego averages January lows of {{convert|50|F|C}} and August highs of {{convert|78|F|C}}. The city of [[El Cajon, California|El Cajon]], just {{convert|12|mi|km}} inland from downtown San Diego, averages January lows of {{convert|42|F|C}} and August highs of {{convert|88|F|C}}.
The average surface temperature of the water at Scripps Pier in the [[California Current]] has increased by almost {{convert|3|F-change}} since 1950, according to scientists at [[Scripps Institution of Oceanography]].<ref>{{cite news|author=Lee, Mike|title=Is global warming changing California Current?|url=http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/2011/jun/18/taking-stock-california-current/|date=June 18, 2011|work=U-T (San Diego Union Tribune)|access-date=June 20, 2011}}</ref> Additionally, the mean minimum is now above {{convert|40|F|C}}, putting San Diego in [[hardiness zone]] 11, with the last freeze having occurred many decades ago.
The average surface temperature of the water at Scripps Pier in the [[California Current]] has increased by almost {{convert|3|F-change}} since 1950, according to scientists at [[Scripps Institution of Oceanography]].<ref>{{cite news|author=Lee, Mike|title=Is global warming changing California Current?|url=http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/2011/jun/18/taking-stock-california-current/|date=June 18, 2011|work=U-T (San Diego Union Tribune)|access-date=June 20, 2011}}</ref> Additionally, the mean minimum is now above {{convert|40|F|C}}, putting San Diego in [[hardiness zone]] 11, with the last freeze having occurred many decades ago.

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