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History: clar


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[[File:Mission San Diego de Alcalá – church.jpg|thumb|right|[[Mission San Diego de Alcalá]], founded in 1769 by [[Junípero Serra|St. Junípero Serra]]]]
[[File:Mission San Diego de Alcalá – church.jpg|thumb|right|[[Mission San Diego de Alcalá]], founded in 1769 by [[Junípero Serra|St. Junípero Serra]]]]
The permanent [[European colonization of the Americas|European colonization]] of California and of San Diego began in 1769 with the arrival of four contingents of Spaniards from New Spain and the Baja California peninsula. Two seaborne parties reached San Diego Bay: the ”San Carlos”, under Vicente Vila and including as notable members the engineer and cartographer [[Miguel Costansó]] and the soldier and future governor [[Pedro Fages]], and the ”San Antonio”, under [[Juan José Pérez Hernández|Juan Pérez]]. An initial overland expedition to San Diego from the south was led by the soldier [[Fernando Rivera y Moncada|Fernando Rivera]] and included the [[Franciscan]] missionary, explorer, and chronicler [[Juan Crespí]], followed by a second party led by the designated governor [[Gaspar de Portolà]] and including the mission president (and now saint) [[Junípero Serra]].<ref>Pourade, Richard F. 1960. ”The History of San Diego: The Explorers”. Union-Tribune Publishing Company, San Diego.</ref>
The permanent [[European colonization of the Americas|European colonization]] of both California and San Diego began in 1769 with the arrival of four contingents of Spaniards from New Spain and the Baja California peninsula. Two seaborne parties reached San Diego Bay: the ”San Carlos”, under Vicente Vila and including as notable members the engineer and cartographer [[Miguel Costansó]] and the soldier and future governor [[Pedro Fages]], and the ”San Antonio”, under [[Juan José Pérez Hernández|Juan Pérez]]. An initial overland expedition to San Diego from the south was led by the soldier [[Fernando Rivera y Moncada|Fernando Rivera]] and included the [[Franciscan]] missionary, explorer, and chronicler [[Juan Crespí]], followed by a second party led by the designated governor [[Gaspar de Portolà]] and including the mission president (and now saint) [[Junípero Serra]].<ref>Pourade, Richard F. 1960. ”The History of San Diego: The Explorers”. Union-Tribune Publishing Company, San Diego.</ref>
In May 1769, Portolà established the Fort [[Presidio of San Diego]] on a hill near the [[San Diego River]] above the Kumeyaay village of Cosoy,<ref name=”:1″ /> which would later become incorporated into the Spanish settlement,<ref name=”:2″ /> making it the first settlement by Europeans in what is now the state of California. In July of the same year, [[Mission San Diego de Alcalá]] was founded by Franciscan friars under Serra.<ref>{{cite journal|last=Ide|first=Arthur Frederick|date=Fall 1976|title=San Diego: The Saint and the City|journal=Journal of San Diego History|volume=22|issue=4|url=https://www.sandiegohistory.org/journal/76fall/saint.htm}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.sandiegohistory.org/timeline/timeline1.htm |title=San Diego Historical Society:Timeline of San Diego history |publisher=Sandiegohistory.org |access-date=May 4, 2011 |archive-date=December 24, 2015 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20151224204925/https://www.sandiegohistory.org/timeline/timeline1.htm |url-status=dead }}</ref> The mission became a site for a Kumeyaay revolt in 1775, which forced the mission to relocate {{Convert | 6 | mi | 0 | spell = in}} up the San Diego River.<ref>{{Cite web|last=Carrico|first=Richard|title=Sociopolitical Aspects of the 1775 Revolt at Mission San Diego de Alcala|url=https://sandiegohistory.org/journal/1997/july/missionrevolt/|access-date=2020-08-27|website=San Diego History Center {{!}} San Diego, CA {{!}} Our City, Our Story|language=en-US}}</ref> By 1797, the mission boasted the largest native population in Alta California, with over 1,400 neophytes living in and around the mission proper.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.missionscalifornia.com/keyfacts/san-diego-de-alcala.html |title=Keyfacts |publisher=missionscalifornia.com |access-date=July 1, 2010 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100610233845/http://www.missionscalifornia.com/keyfacts/san-diego-de-alcala.html |archive-date=June 10, 2010 |url-status=dead }}</ref> Mission San Diego was the southern anchor in [[Alta California]] of the historic mission trail [[El Camino Real (California)|El Camino Real]]. Both the Presidio and the Mission are [[National Register of Historic Places listings in San Diego County, California|National Historic Landmarks]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.missionsandiego.com/ |title=Mission San Diego |publisher=Mission San Diego |access-date=July 1, 2010}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://tps.cr.nps.gov/nhl/detail.cfm?ResourceID=130&resourceType=Site |title=National Park Service, National Historical Landmarks Program: San Diego Presidio |publisher=Tps.cr.nps.gov |date=October 10, 1960 |access-date=May 4, 2011 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110721183215/http://tps.cr.nps.gov/nhl/detail.cfm?ResourceID=130&resourceType=Site |archive-date=July 21, 2011 }}</ref>
In May 1769, Portolà established the Fort [[Presidio of San Diego]] on a hill near the [[San Diego River]] above the Kumeyaay village of Cosoy,<ref name=”:1″ /> which would later become incorporated into the Spanish settlement,<ref name=”:2″ /> making it the first settlement by Europeans in what is now the state of California. In July of the same year, [[Mission San Diego de Alcalá]] was founded by Franciscan friars under Serra.<ref>{{cite journal|last=Ide|first=Arthur Frederick|date=Fall 1976|title=San Diego: The Saint and the City|journal=Journal of San Diego History|volume=22|issue=4|url=https://www.sandiegohistory.org/journal/76fall/saint.htm}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.sandiegohistory.org/timeline/timeline1.htm |title=San Diego Historical Society:Timeline of San Diego history |publisher=Sandiegohistory.org |access-date=May 4, 2011 |archive-date=December 24, 2015 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20151224204925/https://www.sandiegohistory.org/timeline/timeline1.htm |url-status=dead }}</ref> The mission became a site for a Kumeyaay revolt in 1775, which forced the mission to relocate {{Convert | 6 | mi | 0 | spell = in}} up the San Diego River.<ref>{{Cite web|last=Carrico|first=Richard|title=Sociopolitical Aspects of the 1775 Revolt at Mission San Diego de Alcala|url=https://sandiegohistory.org/journal/1997/july/missionrevolt/|access-date=2020-08-27|website=San Diego History Center {{!}} San Diego, CA {{!}} Our City, Our Story|language=en-US}}</ref> By 1797, the mission boasted the largest native population in Alta California, with over 1,400 neophytes living in and around the mission proper.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.missionscalifornia.com/keyfacts/san-diego-de-alcala.html |title=Keyfacts |publisher=missionscalifornia.com |access-date=July 1, 2010 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100610233845/http://www.missionscalifornia.com/keyfacts/san-diego-de-alcala.html |archive-date=June 10, 2010 |url-status=dead }}</ref> Mission San Diego was the southern anchor in [[Alta California]] of the historic mission trail [[El Camino Real (California)|El Camino Real]]. Both the Presidio and the Mission are [[National Register of Historic Places listings in San Diego County, California|National Historic Landmarks]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.missionsandiego.com/ |title=Mission San Diego |publisher=Mission San Diego |access-date=July 1, 2010}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://tps.cr.nps.gov/nhl/detail.cfm?ResourceID=130&resourceType=Site |title=National Park Service, National Historical Landmarks Program: San Diego Presidio |publisher=Tps.cr.nps.gov |date=October 10, 1960 |access-date=May 4, 2011 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110721183215/http://tps.cr.nps.gov/nhl/detail.cfm?ResourceID=130&resourceType=Site |archive-date=July 21, 2011 }}</ref>

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