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← Previous revision Revision as of 19:35, 1 May 2022
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Historically home to the [[Kumeyaay people]], San Diego is frequently referred to as the “Birthplace of California”, as it was the first site visited and settled by Europeans on what is now the [[West Coast of the United States]].<ref>{{cite book|last=McGrew|first=Clarence Alan|url=https://archive.org/details/citysandiegoand00socigoog|title=City of San Diego and San Diego County: the birthplace of California|publisher=American Historical Society|year=1922|access-date=July 23, 2011}}</ref> Upon landing in [[San Diego Bay]] in 1542, [[Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo]] claimed the area for [[Spain]], forming the basis for the settlement of [[Alta California]] 200 years later. The [[Presidio of San Diego|Presidio]] and [[Mission San Diego de Alcalá]], founded in 1769, formed the first European settlement in what is now California. In 1821, San Diego became part of the newly declared [[First Mexican Empire|Mexican Empire]], which reformed as the [[First Mexican Republic]] two years later. California became part of the United States in 1848 following the [[Mexican–American War]] and was admitted to the union as a state in 1850.
Historically home to the [[Kumeyaay people]], San Diego is frequently referred to as the “Birthplace of California”, as it was the first site visited and settled by Europeans on what is now the [[West Coast of the United States]].<ref>{{cite book|last=McGrew|first=Clarence Alan|url=https://archive.org/details/citysandiegoand00socigoog|title=City of San Diego and San Diego County: the birthplace of California|publisher=American Historical Society|year=1922|access-date=July 23, 2011}}</ref> Upon landing in [[San Diego Bay]] in 1542, [[Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo]] claimed the area for [[Spain]], forming the basis for the settlement of [[Alta California]] 200 years later. The [[Presidio of San Diego|Presidio]] and [[Mission San Diego de Alcalá]], founded in 1769, formed the first European settlement in what is now California. In 1821, San Diego became part of the newly declared [[First Mexican Empire|Mexican Empire]], which reformed as the [[First Mexican Republic]] two years later. California became part of the United States in 1848 following the [[Mexican–American War]] and was admitted to the union as a state in 1850.
San Diego’s main economic engines are military<!– hanging hyphen used according to mos:hanging –> and defense-related activities, tourism, international trade, research, and manufacturing. The city is the economic center of the [[San Diego–Tijuana]] [[conurbation]], the second most populous [[transborder agglomeration|transborder metropolitan area]] in the [[Western Hemisphere|western hemisphere]] (after [[Detroit–Windsor]]), home to an estimated 4,922,723 people as of 2012.<ref>{{cite book|url=http://world-gazetteer.com/wg.php?x=&men=gcis&lng=en&dat=32&geo=-2&srt=pnan&col=aohdq&va=&pt=a|title=America: metropolitan areas|publisher=World Gazetteer|year=2011|access-date=February 19, 2012|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070930223100/http://world-gazetteer.com/wg.php?x=&men=gcis&lng=en&dat=32&geo=-2&srt=pnan&col=aohdq&va=&pt=a|archive-date=September 30, 2007|url-status=dead}}</ref> The primary border crossing between San Diego and [[Tijuana]], the [[San Ysidro Port of Entry]], is the busiest international land border crossing in the world outside of [[Asia]] ([[Border checkpoint#Busiest checkpoints in the world|fourth-busiest]] overall). The city’s primary airport, [[San Diego International Airport]], is the busiest single-[[runway]] airport in the world.{{efn|[[Gatwick Airport|London-Gatwick]] and [[Mumbai International Airport|Mumbai International]], which both handle slightly more traffic, each have two operational runways, though only one can be used at a time because of aircraft separation requirements (leading to these airports frequently being misleadingly referred to as “single-runway airports”).}}<ref>{{Cite web|date=2017-11-20|title=San Diego Int’l Airport will dig up the runway every night for a year|url=https://www.sandiegouniontribune.com/business/growth-development/sd-fi-airport-runway-digging-project-20171120-story.html|access-date=2021-01-26|website=San Diego Union-Tribune|language=en-US}}</ref>Since 2010, statewide [[droughts in California]] have further strained San Diego’s [[water security]].<ref>[https://www.nbcsandiego.com/news/local/rainfall-totals-1-inch-of-rain-in-parts-of-san-diego-county-not-enough-to-pull-from-drought-expert-says/2907297/?amp] Accessed May 1, 3022.</ref>
San Diego’s main economic engines are military<!– hanging hyphen used according to mos:hanging –> and defense-related activities, tourism, international trade, research, and manufacturing. The city is the economic center of the [[San Diego–Tijuana]] [[conurbation]], the second most populous [[transborder agglomeration|transborder metropolitan area]] in the [[Western Hemisphere|western hemisphere]] (after [[Detroit–Windsor]]), home to an estimated 4,922,723 people as of 2012.<ref>{{cite book|url=http://world-gazetteer.com/wg.php?x=&men=gcis&lng=en&dat=32&geo=-2&srt=pnan&col=aohdq&va=&pt=a|title=America: metropolitan areas|publisher=World Gazetteer|year=2011|access-date=February 19, 2012|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070930223100/http://world-gazetteer.com/wg.php?x=&men=gcis&lng=en&dat=32&geo=-2&srt=pnan&col=aohdq&va=&pt=a|archive-date=September 30, 2007|url-status=dead}}</ref> The primary border crossing between San Diego and [[Tijuana]], the [[San Ysidro Port of Entry]], is the busiest international land border crossing in the world outside of [[Asia]] ([[Border checkpoint#Busiest checkpoints in the world|fourth-busiest]] overall). The city’s primary airport, [[San Diego International Airport]], is the busiest single-[[runway]] airport in the world.{{efn|[[Gatwick Airport|London-Gatwick]] and [[Mumbai International Airport|Mumbai International]], which both handle slightly more traffic, each have two operational runways, though only one can be used at a time because of aircraft separation requirements (leading to these airports frequently being misleadingly referred to as “single-runway airports”).}}<ref>{{Cite web|date=2017-11-20|title=San Diego Int’l Airport will dig up the runway every night for a year|url=https://www.sandiegouniontribune.com/business/growth-development/sd-fi-airport-runway-digging-project-20171120-story.html|access-date=2021-01-26|website=San Diego Union-Tribune|language=en-US}}</ref> Since 2010, statewide [[droughts in California]] have further strained San Diego’s [[water security]].<ref>[https://www.nbcsandiego.com/news/local/rainfall-totals-1-inch-of-rain-in-parts-of-san-diego-county-not-enough-to-pull-from-drought-expert-says/2907297/?amp] Accessed May 1, 3022.</ref>
==History==
==History==
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[[File:Mission San Diego de Alcalá – church.jpg|thumb|right|[[Mission San Diego de Alcalá]], founded in 1769 by [[Junípero Serra|St. Junípero Serra]]]]
[[File:Mission San Diego de Alcalá – church.jpg|thumb|right|[[Mission San Diego de Alcalá]], founded in 1769 by [[Junípero Serra|St. Junípero Serra]]]]
The permanent [[European colonization of the Americas|European colonization]] of both California and San Diego began in 1769 with the arrival of four contingents of Spaniards from New Spain and the Baja California peninsula. Two seaborne parties reached San Diego Bay: the ”San Carlos”, under Vicente Vila and including as notable members the engineer and cartographer [[Miguel Costansó]] and the soldier and future governor [[Pedro Fages]], and the ”San Antonio”, under [[Juan José Pérez Hernández|Juan Pérez]]. An initial overland expedition to San Diego from the south was led by the soldier [[Fernando Rivera y Moncada|Fernando Rivera]] and included the [[Franciscan]] missionary, explorer, and chronicler [[Juan Crespí]], followed by a second party led by the designated governor [[Gaspar de Portolà]] and including the mission president (and now saint) [[Junípero Serra]].<ref>Pourade, Richard F. 1960. ”The History of San Diego: The Explorers”. Union-Tribune Publishing Company, San Diego.</ref>
The permanent [[European colonization of the Americas|European colonization]] of both California and San Diego began in 1769 with the arrival of four contingents of Spaniards from New Spain and the Baja California peninsula. Two seaborne parties reached San Diego Bay: the ”San Carlos”, under Vicente Vila and including as notable members the engineer and cartographer [[Miguel Costansó]] and the soldier and future governor [[Pedro Fages]], and the ”San Antonio”, under [[Juan José Pérez Hernández|Juan Pérez]]. An initial overland expedition to San Diego from the south was led by the soldier [[Fernando Rivera y Moncada|Fernando Rivera]] and included the [[Franciscan]] missionary, explorer, and chronicler [[Juan Crespí]], followed by a second party led by the designated governor [[Gaspar de Portolà]] and including the mission president (and now saint) [[Junípero Serra]].<ref>Pourade, Richard F. 1960. ”The History of San Diego: The Explorers”. Union-Tribune Publishing Company, San Diego.</ref>
In May 1769, Portolà established the Fort [[Presidio of San Diego]] on a hill near the [[San Diego River]] above the Kumeyaay village of Cosoy,<ref name=”:1″ /> which would later become incorporated into the Spanish settlement,<ref name=”:2″ /> making it the first settlement by Europeans in what is now the state of California. In July of the same year, [[Mission San Diego de Alcalá]] was founded by Franciscan friars under Serra.<ref>{{cite journal|last=Ide|first=Arthur Frederick|date=Fall 1976|title=San Diego: The Saint and the City|journal=Journal of San Diego History|volume=22|issue=4|url=https://www.sandiegohistory.org/journal/76fall/saint.htm}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.sandiegohistory.org/timeline/timeline1.htm |title=San Diego Historical Society:Timeline of San Diego history |publisher=Sandiegohistory.org |access-date=May 4, 2011 |archive-date=December 24, 2015 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20151224204925/https://www.sandiegohistory.org/timeline/timeline1.htm |url-status=dead }}</ref> The mission became a site for a Kumeyaay revolt in 1775, which forced the mission to relocate {{Convert | 6 | mi | 0 | spell = in}} up the San Diego River.<ref>{{Cite web|last=Carrico|first=Richard|title=Sociopolitical Aspects of the 1775 Revolt at Mission San Diego de Alcala|url=https://sandiegohistory.org/journal/1997/july/missionrevolt/|access-date=2020-08-27|website=San Diego History Center {{!}} San Diego, CA {{!}} Our City, Our Story|language=en-US}}</ref> By 1797, the mission boasted the largest native population in Alta California, with over 1,400 neophytes living in and around the mission proper.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.missionscalifornia.com/keyfacts/san-diego-de-alcala.html |title=Keyfacts |publisher=missionscalifornia.com |access-date=July 1, 2010 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100610233845/http://www.missionscalifornia.com/keyfacts/san-diego-de-alcala.html |archive-date=June 10, 2010 |url-status=dead }}</ref> Mission San Diego was the southern anchor in [[Alta California]] of the historic mission trail [[El Camino Real (California)|El Camino Real]]. Both the Presidio and the Mission are [[National Register of Historic Places listings in San Diego County, California|National Historic Landmarks]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.missionsandiego.com/ |title=Mission San Diego |publisher=Mission San Diego |access-date=July 1, 2010}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://tps.cr.nps.gov/nhl/detail.cfm?ResourceID=130&resourceType=Site |title=National Park Service, National Historical Landmarks Program: San Diego Presidio |publisher=Tps.cr.nps.gov |date=October 10, 1960 |access-date=May 4, 2011 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110721183215/http://tps.cr.nps.gov/nhl/detail.cfm?ResourceID=130&resourceType=Site |archive-date=July 21, 2011 }}</ref>
In May 1769, Portolà established the Fort [[Presidio of San Diego]] on a hill near the [[San Diego River]] above the Kumeyaay village of Cosoy,<ref name=”:1″ /> which would later become incorporated into the Spanish settlement,<ref name=”:2″ /> making it the first settlement by Europeans in what is now the state of California. In July of the same year, [[Mission San Diego de Alcalá]] was founded by Franciscan friars under Serra.<ref>{{cite journal|last=Ide|first=Arthur Frederick|date=Fall 1976|title=San Diego: The Saint and the City|journal=Journal of San Diego History|volume=22|issue=4|url=https://www.sandiegohistory.org/journal/76fall/saint.htm}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.sandiegohistory.org/timeline/timeline1.htm |title=San Diego Historical Society:Timeline of San Diego history |publisher=Sandiegohistory.org |access-date=May 4, 2011 |archive-date=December 24, 2015 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20151224204925/https://www.sandiegohistory.org/timeline/timeline1.htm |url-status=dead }}</ref> The mission became a site for a Kumeyaay revolt in 1775, which forced the mission to relocate {{Convert | 6 | mi | 0 | spell = in}} up the San Diego River.<ref>{{Cite web|last=Carrico|first=Richard|title=Sociopolitical Aspects of the 1775 Revolt at Mission San Diego de Alcala|url=https://sandiegohistory.org/journal/1997/july/missionrevolt/|access-date=2020-08-27|website=San Diego History Center {{!}} San Diego, CA {{!}} Our City, Our Story|language=en-US}}</ref> By 1797, the mission boasted the largest native population in Alta California, with over 1,400 neophytes living in and around the mission proper.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.missionscalifornia.com/keyfacts/san-diego-de-alcala.html |title=Keyfacts |publisher=missionscalifornia.com |access-date=July 1, 2010 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100610233845/http://www.missionscalifornia.com/keyfacts/san-diego-de-alcala.html |archive-date=June 10, 2010 |url-status=dead }}</ref> Mission San Diego was the southern anchor in [[Alta California]] of the historic mission trail [[El Camino Real (California)|El Camino Real]]. Both the Presidio and the Mission are [[National Register of Historic Places listings in San Diego County, California|National Historic Landmarks]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.missionsandiego.com/ |title=Mission San Diego |publisher=Mission San Diego |access-date=July 1, 2010}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://tps.cr.nps.gov/nhl/detail.cfm?ResourceID=130&resourceType=Site |title=National Park Service, National Historical Landmarks Program: San Diego Presidio |publisher=Tps.cr.nps.gov |date=October 10, 1960 |access-date=May 4, 2011 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110721183215/http://tps.cr.nps.gov/nhl/detail.cfm?ResourceID=130&resourceType=Site |archive-date=July 21, 2011 }}</ref>

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