Kaltenmeyer: clean up, typo(s) fixed: 1884-1886 → 1884–1886

clean up, typo(s) fixed: 1884-1886 → 1884–1886


← Previous revision Revision as of 00:36, 9 June 2022
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Historically home to the [[Kumeyaay people]], San Diego is frequently referred to as the “Birthplace of California”, as it was the first site visited and settled by Europeans on what is now the [[West Coast of the United States]].<ref>{{cite book|last=McGrew|first=Clarence Alan|url=https://archive.org/details/citysandiegoand00socigoog|title=City of San Diego and San Diego County: the birthplace of California|publisher=American Historical Society|year=1922|access-date=July 23, 2011}}</ref> Upon landing in [[San Diego Bay]] in 1542, [[Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo]] claimed the area for [[Spain]], forming the basis for the settlement of [[Alta California]] 200 years later. The [[Presidio of San Diego|Presidio]] and [[Mission San Diego de Alcalá]], founded in 1769, formed the first European settlement in what is now California. In 1821, San Diego became part of the newly declared [[First Mexican Empire|Mexican Empire]], which reformed as the [[First Mexican Republic]] two years later. California became part of the United States in 1848 following the [[Mexican–American War]] and was admitted to the union as a state in 1850.
Historically home to the [[Kumeyaay people]], San Diego is frequently referred to as the “Birthplace of California”, as it was the first site visited and settled by Europeans on what is now the [[West Coast of the United States]].<ref>{{cite book|last=McGrew|first=Clarence Alan|url=https://archive.org/details/citysandiegoand00socigoog|title=City of San Diego and San Diego County: the birthplace of California|publisher=American Historical Society|year=1922|access-date=July 23, 2011}}</ref> Upon landing in [[San Diego Bay]] in 1542, [[Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo]] claimed the area for [[Spain]], forming the basis for the settlement of [[Alta California]] 200 years later. The [[Presidio of San Diego|Presidio]] and [[Mission San Diego de Alcalá]], founded in 1769, formed the first European settlement in what is now California. In 1821, San Diego became part of the newly declared [[First Mexican Empire|Mexican Empire]], which reformed as the [[First Mexican Republic]] two years later. California became part of the United States in 1848 following the [[Mexican–American War]] and was admitted to the union as a state in 1850.
San Diego’s main economic engines are military<!– hanging hyphen used according to mos:hanging –> and defense-related activities, tourism, international trade, research, and manufacturing. The city is the economic center of the [[San Diego–Tijuana]] [[conurbation]], the second most populous [[transborder agglomeration|transborder metropolitan area]] in the [[Western Hemisphere|western hemisphere]] (after [[Detroit–Windsor]]), home to an estimated 4,922,723 people as of 2012.<ref>{{cite book|url=http://world-gazetteer.com/wg.php?x=&men=gcis&lng=en&dat=32&geo=-2&srt=pnan&col=aohdq&va=&pt=a|title=America: metropolitan areas|publisher=World Gazetteer|year=2011|access-date=February 19, 2012|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070930223100/http://world-gazetteer.com/wg.php?x=&men=gcis&lng=en&dat=32&geo=-2&srt=pnan&col=aohdq&va=&pt=a|archive-date=September 30, 2007|url-status=dead}}</ref> The primary border crossing between San Diego and [[Tijuana]], the [[San Ysidro Port of Entry]], is the busiest international land border crossing in the world outside of [[Asia]] ([[Border checkpoint#Busiest checkpoints in the world|fourth-busiest]] overall). The city’s primary airport, [[San Diego International Airport]], is the busiest single-[[runway]] airport in the world.{{efn|[[Gatwick Airport|London-Gatwick]] and [[Mumbai International Airport|Mumbai International]], which both handle slightly more traffic, each have two operational runways, though only one can be used at a time because of aircraft separation requirements (leading to these airports frequently being misleadingly referred to as “single-runway airports”).}}<ref>{{Cite web|date=2017-11-20|title=San Diego Int’l Airport will dig up the runway every night for a year|url=https://www.sandiegouniontribune.com/business/growth-development/sd-fi-airport-runway-digging-project-20171120-story.html|access-date=2021-01-26|website=San Diego Union-Tribune|language=en-US}}</ref> Since 2010, statewide [[droughts in California]] have further strained San Diego’s [[water security]].<ref>{{cite web |url=https://www.nbcsandiego.com/news/local/rainfall-totals-1-inch-of-rain-in-parts-of-san-diego-county-not-enough-to-pull-from-drought-expert-says/2907297/?amp |title=Rainfall Totals: March Rain Not Enough to Pull from Drought, Expert Says |website=www.nbcsandiego.com |access-date=May 1, 2022}}</ref>
San Diego’s main economic engines are military<!– hanging hyphen used according to mos:hanging –> and defense-related activities, tourism, international trade, research, and manufacturing. The city is the economic center of the [[San Diego–Tijuana]] [[conurbation]], the second most populous [[transborder agglomeration|transborder metropolitan area]] in the [[Western Hemisphere|western hemisphere]] (after [[Detroit–Windsor]]), home to an estimated 4,922,723 people as of 2012.<ref>{{cite book|url=http://world-gazetteer.com/wg.php?x=&men=gcis&lng=en&dat=32&geo=-2&srt=pnan&col=aohdq&va=&pt=a|title=America: metropolitan areas|publisher=World Gazetteer|year=2011|access-date=February 19, 2012|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070930223100/http://world-gazetteer.com/wg.php?x=&men=gcis&lng=en&dat=32&geo=-2&srt=pnan&col=aohdq&va=&pt=a|archive-date=September 30, 2007|url-status=dead}}</ref> The primary border crossing between San Diego and [[Tijuana]], the [[San Ysidro Port of Entry]], is the busiest international land border crossing in the world outside of [[Asia]] ([[Border checkpoint#Busiest checkpoints in the world|fourth-busiest]] overall). The city’s primary airport, [[San Diego International Airport]], is the busiest single-[[runway]] airport in the world.{{efn|[[Gatwick Airport|London-Gatwick]] and [[Mumbai International Airport|Mumbai International]], which both handle slightly more traffic, each have two operational runways, though only one can be used at a time because of aircraft separation requirements (leading to these airports frequently being misleadingly referred to as “single-runway airports”).}}<ref>{{Cite web|date=2017-11-20|title=San Diego Int’l Airport will dig up the runway every night for a year|url=https://www.sandiegouniontribune.com/business/growth-development/sd-fi-airport-runway-digging-project-20171120-story.html|access-date=2021-01-26|website=San Diego Union-Tribune|language=en-US}}</ref> Since 2010, statewide [[droughts in California]] have further strained San Diego’s [[water security]].<ref>{{cite web |url=https://www.nbcsandiego.com/news/local/rainfall-totals-1-inch-of-rain-in-parts-of-san-diego-county-not-enough-to-pull-from-drought-expert-says/2907297/?amp |title=Rainfall Totals: March Rain Not Enough to Pull from Drought, Expert Says |website=www.nbcsandiego.com |access-date=May 1, 2022}}</ref>
==History==
==History==
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The original town of San Diego was located at the foot of Presidio Hill, in the area which is now [[Old Town San Diego State Historic Park]]. The location was not ideal, being several miles away from navigable water at its port at [[La Playa, San Diego|La Playa]]. In 1850, [[William Heath Davis]] promoted a new development by the bay shore called “New San Diego”, several miles south of the original settlement; however, for several decades the new development consisted only of a pier, a few houses and an Army depot for the support of [[Fort Yuma]]. After 1854, the fort became supplied by sea and by [[Steamboats of the Colorado River|steamboats on the Colorado River]] and the depot fell into disuse. From 1857 to 1860, San Diego became the western terminus of the [[San Antonio-San Diego Mail Line]], the earliest overland [[stagecoach]] and mail operation from the [[Eastern United States]] to California, coming from [[Texas]] through [[New Mexico Territory]] in less than 30 days.<ref name = “Pierce”>Basil C. Pearce, [http://www.sandiegohistory.org/journal/1969/april/jackass/ “The Jackass Mail—San Antonio and San Diego Mail Line”], ”San Diego Historical Society Quarterly”, Spring 1969, Volume 15, Number 2</ref>
The original town of San Diego was located at the foot of Presidio Hill, in the area which is now [[Old Town San Diego State Historic Park]]. The location was not ideal, being several miles away from navigable water at its port at [[La Playa, San Diego|La Playa]]. In 1850, [[William Heath Davis]] promoted a new development by the bay shore called “New San Diego”, several miles south of the original settlement; however, for several decades the new development consisted only of a pier, a few houses and an Army depot for the support of [[Fort Yuma]]. After 1854, the fort became supplied by sea and by [[Steamboats of the Colorado River|steamboats on the Colorado River]] and the depot fell into disuse. From 1857 to 1860, San Diego became the western terminus of the [[San Antonio-San Diego Mail Line]], the earliest overland [[stagecoach]] and mail operation from the [[Eastern United States]] to California, coming from [[Texas]] through [[New Mexico Territory]] in less than 30 days.<ref name = “Pierce”>Basil C. Pearce, [http://www.sandiegohistory.org/journal/1969/april/jackass/ “The Jackass Mail—San Antonio and San Diego Mail Line”], ”San Diego Historical Society Quarterly”, Spring 1969, Volume 15, Number 2</ref>
In the late 1860s, [[Alonzo Horton]] promoted a move to the bayside area, which he called “New Town” and which became [[Downtown San Diego]]. Horton promoted the area heavily, and people and businesses began to relocate to New Town because its location on [[San Diego Bay]] was convenient to shipping. New Town soon eclipsed the original settlement, known to this day as [[Old Town, San Diego, California|Old Town]], and became the economic and governmental heart of the city.<ref name=Cornerstone>{{harvnb|Engstrand|2005|page=80}}</ref> Still, San Diego remained a relative backwater town until the arrival of a railroad connection in 1878. In 1884-1886, [[John J. Montgomery]] made the first controlled flights by an American in a heavier-than-air unpowered glider just south of San Diego at Otay Mesa, helping to pioneer a new science of aerodynamics.
In the late 1860s, [[Alonzo Horton]] promoted a move to the bayside area, which he called “New Town” and which became [[Downtown San Diego]]. Horton promoted the area heavily, and people and businesses began to relocate to New Town because its location on [[San Diego Bay]] was convenient to shipping. New Town soon eclipsed the original settlement, known to this day as [[Old Town, San Diego, California|Old Town]], and became the economic and governmental heart of the city.<ref name=Cornerstone>{{harvnb|Engstrand|2005|page=80}}</ref> Still, San Diego remained a relative backwater town until the arrival of a railroad connection in 1878. In 1884–1886, [[John J. Montgomery]] made the first controlled flights by an American in a heavier-than-air unpowered glider just south of San Diego at Otay Mesa, helping to pioneer a new science of aerodynamics.
In 1912, San Diego was the site of a [[San Diego free speech fight|free speech fight]] between the [[Industrial Workers of the World]] and the city government who passed an ordinance forbidding the [[freedom of speech]] along an area of “Soapbox Row” that led to civil disobedience, [[vigilantism]], [[police violence]], the abduction of [[Emma Goldman]]’s husband [[Ben Reitman]] and [[San Diego free speech fight|multiple riots]].<ref>{{Cite web|last=Hall|first=Matthew T.|date=2012-02-08|title=100 years ago, San Diego banned free speech|url=https://www.sandiegouniontribune.com/sdut-100-years-ago-san-diego-banned-free-speech-2012feb08-story.html|access-date=2021-07-09|website=San Diego Union-Tribune|language=en-US}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|last=Dotinga|first=Randy|date=2011-03-15|title=When San Diego Had Its Own Big Labor Clash|url=https://www.voiceofsandiego.org/topics/news/when-san-diego-had-its-own-big-labor-clash/|access-date=2021-07-09|website=Voice of San Diego|language=en-US}}</ref> San Diego’s proximity to Tijuana during the [[Mexican Revolution]] made this one of the most significant [[free speech fights]] during the [[Wobbly]] era.<ref>{{Cite web|last=Waller|first=Tom|date=1992-04-02|title=The Wobblies and San Diego’s shame {{!}} San Diego Reader|url=https://www.sandiegoreader.com/news/1992/apr/02/battle-soapbox-row/|access-date=2021-07-09|website=San Diego Reader|language=en}}</ref>
In 1912, San Diego was the site of a [[San Diego free speech fight|free speech fight]] between the [[Industrial Workers of the World]] and the city government who passed an ordinance forbidding the [[freedom of speech]] along an area of “Soapbox Row” that led to civil disobedience, [[vigilantism]], [[police violence]], the abduction of [[Emma Goldman]]’s husband [[Ben Reitman]] and [[San Diego free speech fight|multiple riots]].<ref>{{Cite web|last=Hall|first=Matthew T.|date=2012-02-08|title=100 years ago, San Diego banned free speech|url=https://www.sandiegouniontribune.com/sdut-100-years-ago-san-diego-banned-free-speech-2012feb08-story.html|access-date=2021-07-09|website=San Diego Union-Tribune|language=en-US}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|last=Dotinga|first=Randy|date=2011-03-15|title=When San Diego Had Its Own Big Labor Clash|url=https://www.voiceofsandiego.org/topics/news/when-san-diego-had-its-own-big-labor-clash/|access-date=2021-07-09|website=Voice of San Diego|language=en-US}}</ref> San Diego’s proximity to Tijuana during the [[Mexican Revolution]] made this one of the most significant [[free speech fights]] during the [[Wobbly]] era.<ref>{{Cite web|last=Waller|first=Tom|date=1992-04-02|title=The Wobblies and San Diego’s shame {{!}} San Diego Reader|url=https://www.sandiegoreader.com/news/1992/apr/02/battle-soapbox-row/|access-date=2021-07-09|website=San Diego Reader|language=en}}</ref>
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The city is governed by a mayor and a nine-member city council. In 2006, its government changed from a [[council–manager government]] to a [[Mayor–council government|strong mayor government]], as decided by a citywide vote in 2004. The mayor is in effect the chief executive officer of the city, while the council is the legislative body.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.sandiego.gov/mayortransition/index.shtml |title=San Diego City website |publisher=Sandiego.gov |access-date=July 1, 2010 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100720073815/http://www.sandiego.gov/mayortransition/index.shtml |archive-date=July 20, 2010 }}</ref> The City of San Diego is responsible for [[San Diego Police Department|police]], public safety, streets, water and sewer service, planning and zoning, and similar services within its borders. San Diego is a [[sanctuary city]],<ref>{{cite news |title=A close look at ‘sanctuary cities’ |author=Grant Martin |url=http://www.azcentral.com/news/election/azelections/articles/2011/04/10/20110410sanctuary-cities-united-states.html |newspaper=The Arizona Republic |date=April 10, 2011 |access-date=January 13, 2013 |quote=These communities – called “sanctuary cities” by both critics and defenders – are home to many of the estimated 10.8 million illegal immigrants in the U.S. and include Austin, New York City, San Diego and Minneapolis.}}</ref> however, San Diego County is a participant of the [[Secure Communities and administrative immigration policies|Secure Communities]] program.<ref>{{cite news |title=Sheriff asks to opt out of federal immigration program |author=John Coté |url=http://blog.sfgate.com/cityinsider/2010/05/18/sheriff-asks-to-opt-out-of-federal-immigration-program/ |newspaper=San Francisco Chronicle |date=May 18, 2010 |access-date=January 13, 2013 |quote=The program is already in place for numerous counties in California that have sanctuary cities, including Los Angeles, San Diego and Alameda. |archive-date=May 11, 2013 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130511184943/http://blog.sfgate.com/cityinsider/2010/05/18/sheriff-asks-to-opt-out-of-federal-immigration-program/ |url-status=dead }}</ref><ref>{{cite news |title=’Secure Communities’ Program Comes Under Fire |author=Ruxandra Guidi |url=http://www.kpbs.org/news/2011/jun/20/secure-communities-program-comes-under-fire/ |newspaper=KPBS |access-date=January 13, 2013}}</ref> {{As of|2011}}, the city had one employee for every 137 residents, with a payroll greater than $733&nbsp;million.<ref>{{cite news |last=Rosiak |first=Luke |date=July 22, 2013 |title=EXography: 19 U.S. cities have proportionately bigger workforces than bankrupted Detroit |url=http://www.washingtonexaminer.com/exography-19-u.s.-cities-have-proportionately-bigger-workforces-than-bankrupted-detroit/article/2533338 |newspaper=Washington Examiner |location=District of Columbia |access-date=May 16, 2015 |archive-date=May 24, 2015 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150524193951/http://www.washingtonexaminer.com/exography-19-u.s.-cities-have-proportionately-bigger-workforces-than-bankrupted-detroit/article/2533338 |url-status=dead }}</ref>
The city is governed by a mayor and a nine-member city council. In 2006, its government changed from a [[council–manager government]] to a [[Mayor–council government|strong mayor government]], as decided by a citywide vote in 2004. The mayor is in effect the chief executive officer of the city, while the council is the legislative body.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.sandiego.gov/mayortransition/index.shtml |title=San Diego City website |publisher=Sandiego.gov |access-date=July 1, 2010 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100720073815/http://www.sandiego.gov/mayortransition/index.shtml |archive-date=July 20, 2010 }}</ref> The City of San Diego is responsible for [[San Diego Police Department|police]], public safety, streets, water and sewer service, planning and zoning, and similar services within its borders. San Diego is a [[sanctuary city]],<ref>{{cite news |title=A close look at ‘sanctuary cities’ |author=Grant Martin |url=http://www.azcentral.com/news/election/azelections/articles/2011/04/10/20110410sanctuary-cities-united-states.html |newspaper=The Arizona Republic |date=April 10, 2011 |access-date=January 13, 2013 |quote=These communities – called “sanctuary cities” by both critics and defenders – are home to many of the estimated 10.8 million illegal immigrants in the U.S. and include Austin, New York City, San Diego and Minneapolis.}}</ref> however, San Diego County is a participant of the [[Secure Communities and administrative immigration policies|Secure Communities]] program.<ref>{{cite news |title=Sheriff asks to opt out of federal immigration program |author=John Coté |url=http://blog.sfgate.com/cityinsider/2010/05/18/sheriff-asks-to-opt-out-of-federal-immigration-program/ |newspaper=San Francisco Chronicle |date=May 18, 2010 |access-date=January 13, 2013 |quote=The program is already in place for numerous counties in California that have sanctuary cities, including Los Angeles, San Diego and Alameda. |archive-date=May 11, 2013 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130511184943/http://blog.sfgate.com/cityinsider/2010/05/18/sheriff-asks-to-opt-out-of-federal-immigration-program/ |url-status=dead }}</ref><ref>{{cite news |title=’Secure Communities’ Program Comes Under Fire |author=Ruxandra Guidi |url=http://www.kpbs.org/news/2011/jun/20/secure-communities-program-comes-under-fire/ |newspaper=KPBS |access-date=January 13, 2013}}</ref> {{As of|2011}}, the city had one employee for every 137 residents, with a payroll greater than $733&nbsp;million.<ref>{{cite news |last=Rosiak |first=Luke |date=July 22, 2013 |title=EXography: 19 U.S. cities have proportionately bigger workforces than bankrupted Detroit |url=http://www.washingtonexaminer.com/exography-19-u.s.-cities-have-proportionately-bigger-workforces-than-bankrupted-detroit/article/2533338 |newspaper=Washington Examiner |location=District of Columbia |access-date=May 16, 2015 |archive-date=May 24, 2015 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150524193951/http://www.washingtonexaminer.com/exography-19-u.s.-cities-have-proportionately-bigger-workforces-than-bankrupted-detroit/article/2533338 |url-status=dead }}</ref>
The members of the city council are each elected from single-member districts within the city. The mayor and city attorney are elected directly by the voters of the entire city. The mayor, city attorney, and council members are elected to four-year terms, with a two-term limit.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.sandiego.gov/city-clerk/elections/city/details.shtml |title=San Diego City website |publisher=Sandiego.gov |access-date=July 1, 2010 |archive-date=May 6, 2010 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100506171405/http://www.sandiego.gov/city-clerk/elections/city/details.shtml |url-status=dead }}</ref> Elections are held on a non-partisan basis per California state law; nevertheless, most officeholders do identify themselves as either Democrats or Republicans. In 2007, registered Democrats outnumbered Republicans by about 7 to 6 in the city,<ref name=”RegDEMREP”>{{cite web|url=http://www.sandiego.gov/city-clerk/pdf/voterstats.pdf|title=Voter Registration in the City of San Diego|publisher=San Diego Office of the City Clerk|date=August 1, 2007|access-date=April 22, 2009|archive-date=March 25, 2009|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090325032145/http://www.sandiego.gov/city-clerk/pdf/voterstats.pdf|url-status=dead}}</ref> and Democrats currently ({{As of|2021|lc=y}}) hold a 8–1 majority in the city council. The current mayor, [[Todd Gloria]], is a member of the [[Democratic Party (United States)|Democratic Party]].
The members of the city council are each elected from single-member districts within the city. The mayor and city attorney are elected directly by the voters of the entire city. The mayor, city attorney, and council members are elected to four-year terms, with a two-term limit.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.sandiego.gov/city-clerk/elections/city/details.shtml |title=San Diego City website |publisher=Sandiego.gov |access-date=July 1, 2010 |archive-date=May 6, 2010 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100506171405/http://www.sandiego.gov/city-clerk/elections/city/details.shtml |url-status=dead }}</ref> Elections are held on a non-partisan basis per California state law; nevertheless, most officeholders do identify themselves as either Democrats or Republicans. In 2007, registered Democrats outnumbered Republicans by about 7 to 6 in the city,<ref name=”RegDEMREP”>{{cite web|url=http://www.sandiego.gov/city-clerk/pdf/voterstats.pdf|title=Voter Registration in the City of San Diego|publisher=San Diego Office of the City Clerk|date=August 1, 2007|access-date=April 22, 2009|archive-date=March 25, 2009|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090325032145/http://www.sandiego.gov/city-clerk/pdf/voterstats.pdf|url-status=dead}}</ref> and Democrats currently ({{As of|2022|lc=y}}) hold an 8–1 majority in the city council. The current mayor, [[Todd Gloria]], is a member of the [[Democratic Party (United States)|Democratic Party]].
[[File:San Diego City Council chambers.jpg|thumb|right|alt=Wood paneling floor to ceiling with seats for 8 members and support staff|[[San Diego City Council]] chambers]]
[[File:San Diego City Council chambers.jpg|thumb|right|alt=Wood paneling floor to ceiling with seats for 8 members and support staff|[[San Diego City Council]] chambers]]

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